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Главный редактор: И.С. Прохоров, к.с.-х.н.
Редакция: И.И. Прохорова (директор), М.А. Королькова, Н.В. Куроптева
Редколлегия: А.И. Беленков, д.с.-х.н., С.Л. Белопухов, д.с.-х.н., Н.М. Белоус, д.с.-х.н., Н.В. Войтович, д.с.-х.н., Л.А. Дорожкина, д.с.-х.н., А.А. Завалин, д.с.-х.н., А.Л. Иванов, д.б.н., Л.В. Кирейчева, д.т.н., Н.В. Клебанович, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.В. Кураков, д.б.н., С.В. Лукин, д.с.-х.н., С.М. Лукин, д.б.н., С.М. Надежкин, д.б.н., М.М. Овчаренко, д.с.-х.н., А.В. Пасынков, д.б.н., Т.Ф. Персикова, д.с.-х.н. (Беларусь), А.А. Плотников, к.с.-х.н., О.А. Подколзин, д.с.-х.н., Н.И. Санжарова, д.б.н., В.М. Семенов, д.б.н., В.И. Титова, д.с.-х.н.
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Подписано в печать: 13.02.2016
Журнал зарегистрирован в Министерстве печати и информации Российской Федерации 29 апреля 1997 г.
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2016 / Issue 1
Particularities of fertilizer application in modern conditions
A comparative analysis of values, interpretations and uses of practical agriculture certain fundamental provisions of the system fertilize crops in the rotation, in retrospect, «traditional agriculture Non-Chernozem zone of RF band end of the last century – modern crop management technologies».
It is noted that the content has changed significantly and have undergone some changes of traditional recommendations for the use of individual items of the system fertilize crops in modern conditions of crop.
Given that in recent years, the list of organic fertilizers included a significant amount of organic waste with modified physical and chemical characteristics, it is required to update recommendations on dose, timing and method of such fertilizers. This is directly related to changes in farming systems.
It is important to clarify the guidelines for the choice of forms of fertilizer since expanded their range of solid mineral macrofertilizers, appeared on the market liquid complex macro- and microfertilizers, but it is limited by the amount of knowledge of their composition and characteristics of behavior in «soil – plant» system.
Many questions arise to assess the possibility of fertilization of cultures in technologies based on minimizing tillage.
Keywords: fertilizer system, organic fertilizers and wastes, mineral macro- and microfertilizers, forms, dozes and periods of fertilizer application.
Soil conditions in Tula region
The article analyzes the current state of the soils of the Tula region, conducted by the specialists of the Center of Agricultural Radiology and chemization «Tul’skiy» with the use of modern computer technology, as well as with the use of navigation equipment GARMIN GPSMAP 62S. It shows the evolution of soil fertility parameters, the reasons of the negative balance of nutrients. Ways to conserve and enhance soil fertility through the use of chemicals and primary cultivation of soil, not used for a long time.
Keywords: agrochemical monitoring, soil fertility, chemization means, land-use control, Tula region.
Dynamics of heavy metals content in soils of Ulyanovsk region
Soil fertility monitoring is main work of State agrochemical service of Russia because the final aim of agriculture is providing of ecologically safe output for people in conditions of increasing technogenic pressure. The paper presents the results of studying the dynamics of changes in the content of mobile forms of heavy metals in soils of the Ulyanovsk region for 2004-2014. Established that regional soils are safety for agriculture except cadmium. Local exceed of total cadmium MPC and progressive increasing concentration of lead in arable layer needs constant monitoring of agricultural output in current territories to ecological safety.
Keywords: heavy metals, reference site, soils (chernozems, grey forest).
BIOSTIMULANTS, HUMIC AND NANOPREPARATIONS: STUDY AND ASSESSMENT
Biostimulants in agrotechnologies: problems, solutions, outlook
Review considers actual items in the field of research of preparations on the basis of wide range of raw material sources, which could be categorized as biostimulants. Terminology, classification and legislation are discussed. Possible solutions of considering problematic aspects are proposed. Questions for controversial discussion are initiated. The prospects of research in sphere of biostimulants are considered.
Keywords: biostimulants, plant growth regulators, biofertilizers, agrochemicals, terminology, classification, legislation.
Experience of the assessment of influence of humic preparations on productivity and quality of potatoes
A statistically significant positive effect of humic substances influence on the yield and quality of potato varieties Bryanskaya novinka and Santa at soddy-podzolic cultivated soil in Solnechnogorsk district of Moscow region is established. Lack of responsiveness of potato varieties to application of potassium humate Extra based on brown coal and potassium humate EcoOrganic peat-based on some experimental plots associated with insignificant quantity of the experiment variants, in which both ways (doses and methods of preparations application would vary. At the same time, a significant effect gives humate potassium Extra.
Keywords: humates, soddy-podzolic cultivated soil, reliability of distinctions, productivity of potatoes.
Study of microbial community composition of humic preparations based on lowland peat
Microbiological analysis of humic substances, produced on lowland peat, showed that they are present in a large number of agronomically important groups of bacteria (ammonifying, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, microorganisms phosphatability). In the studied humic products is not detected actinobacteria and phytopathogenic micromycetes. It is established that soaking in humic products is not affect the germination and energy of germination of seeds of spring wheat, buckwheat, maize and spring rape. However, the length of seedlings under the influence of the humate treatment was significantly greater than in controls. This is especially pronounced in spring wheat, maize and spring rape. For the studied morphometric indicators best data obtained from spring wheat. Included in the composition of humates microorganisms produce various enzymes, amino acids and other physiologically active substances, providing both direct and indirect positive impact on the growth and development of plants. Studied humic preparations can be recommended for presowing treatment of different agricultural crops seeds.
Keywords: lowland peat, humic preparations, microorganisms, test plants.
Influence of nanostructured water-phosphate and water-phosphate suspensions on buckwheat yield
We analyzed the results of studies on the effect of different doses and methods of application of nanostructured water phosphate suspension (NWFS) and water-phosphorite suspension (WFS) on the yield of buckwheat in the conditions of pot experiment. Installed the rationality and viability of the integrated use NWFS for presowing treatment of seeds and foliar treatment of plants as fertilizer and growth stimulant on agricultural crops. Diffuse imbibition of the seed slurry of phosphate rock and its suspension in nanostructured form in a dose of 1.25 kg/t contributed to the saturation of the cells of buckwheat phosphorus, which stimulated the development of plants at the initial stage of development. Fertilizing plants with 0.4% solution of the above suspensions in the budding stage, replenishment and assimilation of food elements through the leaves and stems, created favorable conditions for the development of buckwheat plants throughout the growing period. The increase in grain yield for the different cases and complex use of mineral NWFS in the background was 13.8 to 27.6%, with the use of WFS is 3.6-7.1%.
Keywords: nanostructured aqueous phosphate slurry, pre-sowing seed treatment, foliar treatment of plants, yield.
Study of complex biofertilizer based on nanostructural water-phosphorite suspension and consortium of microorganisms for corn cultivation
One of the most important tasks of modern bio- and nanotechnology in agriculture – determination of microorganisms that can significantly enhance the plants abilities and give them new properties and thus achieve maximum efficiency. We have formed a collection of diazotrophic and phosphate-organisms found in the natural environment of the Republic of Tatarstan. On the basis of nanostructured water-phosphorite suspension and strains consortium (Azotobacter chroococcum, Pseudomonas brassicacearum, Sphingobacterium multivorum, Achromobacter xylosoxidans) created a complex biofertilizer, the use of which the first increases maize yields by 39% and improves the condition of the soil microbiocoenosis.
Keywords: nanostructural water-phosphorite suspension, complex biofertilizer, consortium of microorgan- isms, soil fertility, maize, harvest.
NITROGEN PLANT NUTRITION
Influence of nitrogen fertilizer and Rhyzoagrin on spring wheat grain yield in soddy-podzolic soil
We have checked the effect of Nitrogen fertilizer and bio-preparation Rhyzoagrin made on the base of Agrobacterium radiobacter strain on the spring wheat grain yield during the experiments have been held in the soddy-podzolic soils of non chernozem (non humus) regions of Russia. We have discovered the close positive correlation (r = 0.77-0.90) of the grain inoculation effect with a biological preparation from the soil environment reaction and the hydrothermal coefficient value during the vegetation period. The minimal increase of the spring wheat grain yield (1.2-1.9 quintals per hectare) from the use of bio-preparation was obtained at hydrothermal coefficient = 1.3. Its influence is more effective during the stressful weather conditions of vegetation period. We practically haven't achieved a positive effect from the grain inoculation on the spring wheat grain yield with the acid reaction of the soil environment (pHKCl < 4.8).When the soil environment reaction is close to neutral (pHKCl 6.0- 6.7) and the value of hydrothermal coefficient is 1.64-1.82 the increase of spring wheat grain yield from Rhyzoagrin against the backdrop of phosphorus potassium fertilizers is 3.0-5.5 quintals per hectare. The grain inoculation effect during fertilizing wheat with 30 kg of nitrogen practically does not depend on the meteorological conditions during the growing season.
Keywords: nitrogen fertilizer, Rhyzoagrin, associative nitrogen fixation, spring wheat, yield, soil environment reaction, hydrothermal coefficient.
Rational application of the nitrogen fertilizers for Chinese cabbage cultivation at highly cultivated soddy-podzolic soil
The results of the rational use of nitrogen fertilizers for growing Chinese cabbage F1 hybrids Nick and Kudesnitsa in field at soddy-podzolic soil. It was found that the fractional application of nitrogen did not give advantages to one-time introduction of the entire dose before planting. It determines the largest yield of heads, depending on in weather conditions and doses of fertilizers. The analysis of dry matter, ascorbic acid and reducing sugars content is presented. Nitrate concentration varies greatly depending on weather conditions and was inversely related to productivity: the lower the yield, of the more nitrate, reaching 2200-4100 mg/kg wet weight at acceptable 2000 mg/kg. Detected removal of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium 1 ton of green mass, set the couse of coefficients hydrolyzable soil nitrogen, mobile forms of phosphorus and potassium, as well as the utilization rates of nitrogen fertilizer.
Keywords: nitrogen fertilizers, soddy-podzolic soil, output, Chinese cabbage, harvest, quality.